Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Perciformes  
 Family Mullidae  
 Genus Parupeneus  
  Parupeneus indicus  (Shaw, 1803) 
Provider: Kwang-Tsao Shao 
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Synonyms:Mullus indicusMullus russeliiParupenaeus indicusParupeneus malabaricusPseudupeneus indicusUpeneus griseofrenatusUpeneus indicusUpeneus malabaricusUpeneus waigiensis  details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993);The Live Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, Vol.5(FAO, 2001)
Character: Body moderately elongate, and moderately compressed. Chin with 2 slender barbels which reach to or slightly beyond rear edge of preopercle. Snout moderate; dorsal profile of snout straight, becoming convex anterior to eye; mouth small, maxilla reaching about 1/2 distance to front edge of eye; a single row of well-spaced, stout, conical teeth in jaws; no teeth on roof of mouth. First gill arch with 5 to 7 gill rakers on upper limb, 18 to 21 on lower limb (total 24 to 27). Two well-separated dorsal fins, the first with VIII spines, the second fin with 9 soft rays; first dorsal-fin spine very short; longest dorsal-fin spine 1.5 to 1.8 times in head length; last ray of second dorsal and anal fin longer than penultimate ray; anal fin with I spine and 6 soft rays; pectoral-fin rays 15 to 17 (usually 16). Lateral-line scales 27 or 28; 3 rows of scales between dorsal fins; 8 or 9 rows of scales along upper part of caudal peduncle. Body greenish brown to reddish brown dorsally, the scale edges narrowly dark, shading to whitish or pale pink ventrally, with a roundish black spot larger then eye posteriorly on side of caudal peduncle, 2/3 of which lies above lateral line; a large, horizontallyelongate, yellow spot centred on lateral line below posterior part of first dorsal fin and interdorsal space; irregular pale blue lines radiating from eye; irregular oblique pale blue lines on second dorsal and anal fins; caudal fin with pale blue lines parallel with rays. 
Habitat: Inhabits shallow sandy or silty areas of coastal and inner lagoon reefs. Occurs singly or in schools. Large adults usually at moderate depths to about 30 m. Feeds on benthic invertebrates. 
Distribution: Widely distributed in tropical and subtropical waters of Indo-Pacific from East Africa to Samoa and Tonga, north to the Philippines, the Ogasawara Islands, south to New Caledonia; Palau to Kosrae, Caroline Islands in Micronesia. It is common in waters aro 
Utility: Marketed fresh. 
Name Code: 382173
  IUCN Red List:LC      Marine     
Suggested Link    The Fish Database of Taiwan  FishBase  Discover Life  World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) 
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