Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Perciformes  
 Family Mullidae  
 Genus Parupeneus  
  Parupeneus pleurostigma  (Bennett, 1831) 
Provider: Kwang-Tsao Shao 
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Synonyms:Parupenaeus pleurostigmaParupeneus brandesiiParupeneus pelurostigmaPseudupeneus brandesiiPseudupeneus pleurostigmaUpeneus brandesiiUpeneus pleurostigma  details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993);The Live Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, Vol.5(FAO, 2001)
Character: Body elongate, and moderately compressed. Chin with 2 slender barbels which usually reach to or posterior to rear edge of preopercle. Snout moderate; dorsal profile of snout straight to before eye; mouth small, maxilla reaching about 1/2 distance to anterior edge of eye; a single row of well-spaced, stout, conical teeth in jaws; no teeth on roof of mouth. First gill arch with 6 to 8 (rarely 8) gill rakers on upper limb, 21 to 25 on lower limb (total 28 to 32). Two well-separated dorsal fins, the first with VIII spines, the second fin with 9 soft rays; first dorsal-fin spine very short; longest dorsal-fin spine 1.4 to 1.8 times in head length; last ray of second dorsal and anal fins distinctly longer than penultimate ray; anal fin with I spine and 6 soft rays; pectoral-fin rays 15 to 17. Lateral-line scales 27 or 28; 3 rows of scales between dorsal fins; 8 or 9 rows of scales along upper part of caudal peduncle. Body yellowish grey to light red, often with a pale blue to whitish spot on scales of body and irregular blue lines around eye; a black spot usuallymuch larger than eye centred on lateral line below rear base of first dorsal fin, with a large oval white spot posterior and adjacent to it; base of second dorsal fin blackish, the outer part yellow with dark-edged blue lines. 
Habitat: Primarily an insular species. Usually solitary, it occurs in seagrass beds as well as over sand, rubble, or coral and rock bottoms of shallow lagoon and seaward reefs to a depth of at least 46 m. Feeds on benthic animals like crabs, polychaetes and other  
Distribution: Widespread in the Indo-Pacific from East Africa to Hawaii, Line, Marquesas and Tuamoto Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Lord Howe and Rapa Islands. Throughout Micronesia. It is a common species in Taiwan, especially in southern part. 
Name Code: 382176
  IUCN Red List:LC      Marine     
Suggested Link    The Fish Database of Taiwan  FishBase  Discover Life  World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) 
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