Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Perciformes  
 Family Mullidae  
 Genus Parupeneus  
  Parupeneus spilurus  (Bleeker, 1854) 
Provider: Kwang-Tsao Shao 
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Synonyms:Mullus dispilurusMullus rubescensPapupeneus spilurusParupeneus signatusUpeneus spilurus  details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993);The Live Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, Vol.5(FAO, 2001)
Character: Body slightly elongate, and moderately compressed. Chin with 2 slender barbels which usually reach to below rear edge of preopercle. Snout short; dorsal profile of snout before eye slightly concave to straight; mouth small, maxilla reaching about 2/3 distance to front edge of eye; a single row of well-spaced, stout, conical teeth in jaws; no teeth on roof of mouth. First gill arch with 6 or 7 gill rakers on upper limb, 21 to 24 on lower limb (total 27 to 32). Two well-separated dorsal fins, the first with VIII spines, the second fin with 9 soft rays; first dorsal-fin spine very short; longest dorsal-fin spine 1.4 to 1.8 times in head length; last ray of second dorsal and anal fins slightly longer than penultimate ray; anal fin with I spine and 6 soft rays; pectoral-fin rays 15 or 16. Lateral-line scales 27 or 28; 3 rows of scales between dorsal fins; 8 or 9 rows of scales along upper part of caudal peduncle. Body orange-red to reddish brown, the scale edges narrowly darker, shading to pale red or white ventrally; a black spot as large or larger than eye dorsally at posterior end of caudal peduncle, its lower edge resting on lateral line, its upper edge near top of peduncle, usually not meeting spot of other side; an elongate pale yellowish blotch adjacent and anterior to black spot, extending to below rear base of second dorsal fin; 3 brown stripes, separated by 2 pale red to whitish stripes, passing from snout along anterior part of body parallel with dorsal contour, the middle brown stripe passing through eye, the lower just above pectoral-fin base; a faint reddish to yellow stripe along lower side of body; fins orange-red; barbels white. 
Habitat: An inshore species generally found on rocky substrata or coral reefs. Often seen by day at rest on the bottom during daylight hours, suggesting possible nocturnal feeding. Adults solitary or in small aggregations; juveniles tend to form small schools. 
Distribution: Known only from the western Pacific from northern New Zealand and New Caledonia to Western Australia. Including Japan, Norfolk Island, Philippines, and Indonesia. It is found in eastern and southern Taiwanese waters, and Penghu Is.. 
Utility: Marketed fresh. 
Name Code: 382177
  IUCN Red List:LC      Marine     
Suggested Link    The Fish Database of Taiwan  FishBase  Discover Life  World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) 
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