Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Chondrichthyes  
 Order Myliobatiformes  
 Family Myliobatidae  
 Genus Manta  
  Manta birostris  (Walbaum, 1792) 
Provider: Pofeng Lee& Shoou-Jeng Joung 
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Synonyms:Brachioptilon hamiltoniCephaloptera stelligeraCephalopterus mantaCephalopterus vampyrusCeratoptera alfrediCeratoptera ehrenbergiCeratoptera ehrenbergiiCeratoptera johniiManta americanaManta brevirostrisManta ehrenbergii details
Citation: 1. 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993);2. Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p.
Character: Disc nearly twice as wide as long. Head broad, flat, truncate. Snout very broad. Rostral fins fins distinct from the pectorals, directed forward. Pectorals falciform, anterior margin convex, posterior concave. Eyes lateral. Mouth width 3 in disc length. Teeth minute rasp-like, on the lower jaw only, occupying the entire width of the jaw. Gill openings transverse. One dorsal fin,its origin a little forward of the bases of the pectorals. Ventrals small. Posterior margin rounded, not reaching to the ends of the pectorals. Tail longer than disc length. Specimen in formalin dark brown on the back. Under surface whitish. 
Habitat: Mainly in near-shore waters, near coral and rocky reefs; sometimes found over deep water Penetrates shallow muddy bays and the intertidal and occurs off river mouths. Occurs singly or in loose aggregations. Mainly plankton feeders, but may feed on small a 
Distribution: Red Sea, Natal, South Africa, India, Malay Peninsula, East Indies, New South Wales, Melanesia, Polynesia, Hawaii, Taiwan. China. 
Name Code: 383165
      IUCN Red List:VU A2abd+3bd+4abd     Marine     
Suggested Link    The Fish Database of Taiwan  FishBase  Discover Life  World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) 
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