Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Mugiliformes  
 Family Mugilidae  
 Genus Mugil  
  Mugil cephalus  Linnaeus, 1758 
Provider: Kwang-Tsao Shao 
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Synonyms:Mugil albulaMugil ashanteensisMugil capuriiMugil capurriiMugil cephalasMugil cephalotusMugil cephalus ashanteensisMugil cephalus cephalusMugil chaptaliiMugil crenilabis ourMugil dobula details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993);The Live Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, Vol.4(FAO,1999)
Character: Head dorsally broad and flat, but deeper than wide. Upper lip with 1 or 2 outer rows of moderately close-set, unicuspid teeth and 1 to 5 inner rows of smaller, bicuspid teeth; inner, bicuspid teeth well spaced from outer, unicuspid teeth. Lower lip with outer row of moderately close-set unicuspid teeth; 1 or more inner rows of smaller, bicuspid teeth present or absent. Vomer edentate. Adipose eyefold extensive over iris. Gill rakers on lower limb of first gill arch 50 to 90. Origin of fully erected second dorsal fin just posterior to vertical level of origin of anal fin; anal fin with III spines and 8 soft rays; caudal fin forked. Scales very weakly ctenoid; minute cycloid scales superimposed on main body scales, particularly on occipital region. Longitudinal series scale 36 to 44; 13 to 15 in transverse series; 25 or 26 in longitudinal series anterior to origin of second dorsal fin; 19 to 21 scales in transverse series entirely around caudal peduncle. Body olive-green dorsally, flanks silvery and abdomen off-white; about 7 longitudinal dark stripes along flanks, following rows of scales. 
Habitat: Coastal species that often enters estuaries and rivers. Usually in schools over sand or mud bottom and dense vegetation. Mainly diurnal, feed on zooplankton, benthic organisms and detritus. Adult fish tend to feed mainly on algae while inhabiting fresh wa 
Distribution: Worldwide in tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate waters, although less abundant in tropics and apparently rare in Indonesia. It is common in waters around Taiwan 
Utility: Very important commercial species in many parts of the world. Marketed fresh, salted, and frozen; roe sold fresh or smoked; also used in Chinese medicine. 
Name Code: 381182
  IUCN Red List:LC      Marine     
Suggested Link    The Fish Database of Taiwan  FishBase  Discover Life  World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) 
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